Professional PublicationsMy research centers on the mathematical modeling and analysis of computer hardware and software, i.e., computing as applied mathematics. "Computer science" might be an apt description of this endeavor—unfortunately, that term has been irretrievably abused. Practical modeling of real computer systems often requires greater attention to detail than is typical of traditional mathematical domains. A variety of socalled "formal methods", based on specialpurpose notations and mechanical reasoning tools, have been developed to ease this burden. These methods have been applied successfully across the computer industry, but their potential benefits remain largely unexplored. The emphasis has been on automatic tools that are easy to use but lack the versatility of interactive theorem proving. It is unfortunate that the value of a formal method is measured more often by its accessibility to the untrained user than by its ultimate utility as an aid to mathematical reasoning. The effective systematic use of formal methods will require a broader view of the role of mathematics in the science of computing, which I envision as patterned after the classical physical sciences. Thus, I try to use formal methods where appropriate to support, rather than to replace, mathematical rigor. Most of the papers listed below describe the formal analysis and ultimate proof of correctness of (hardware and software) designs that were created by other people. In some cases, this analysis exposed fatal flaws in the original designs. Some day, I hope to do something creative, but for now, this is the thing that I enjoy most and do best: finding fault in the efforts of others. (Hey, I am certainly not the first to build a career around a personality disorder. Mike Tyson and Mel Tillis come to mind. And what was the name of that French nightclub performer whose act was based on a profound case of chronic flatulence?) "Nature is written in that great book which ever lies before our eyes  I mean the universe  but we cannot understand it if we do not first learn the language and grasp the symbols in which it is written. The book is written in the mathematical language, and the symbols are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without whose help it is impossible to comprehend a single word of it; without which one wanders in vain through a dark labyrinth."  Galileo
y first exposure to mechanical theorem proving was at the University of Texas in 1983, when Bob Boyer and J Moore showed me their prover, Nqthm. At their suggestion (which came with a conditional offer of a master's degree), in response to a 1961 challenge by John McCarthy, I used Nqthm to check a formal proof of Wilson's Theorem, and proceeded to develop an Nqthm library of elementary number theory, including A Mechanical Proof of Quadratic Reciprocity. The primary significance of this last result, of course, was that it finally put to rest any suspicion that the 197 previously published proofs of this theorem were all flawed. By the way, it also put me in some good company. More recently, I have repeated these proofs with the ACL2 prover. Generally, it is difficult to attach any practical significance to work of this sort. However, Piergiorgio Bertoli showed me a real application for A Mechanical Proof of the Chinese Remainder Theorem. From UT, I went to the Artificial Intelligence Program of Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corp. (MCC), where I developed Proteus: A Framebased Nonmonotonic Inference System. This was largely a waste of time, although it did introduce me to logic programming and eventually led to A Verified Prolog Compiler for the Warren Abstract Machine. I later joined MCC's Formal Methods Project, where I got back to proving theorems and did some work on concurrent program verification: A Verification System for Concurrent Programs Based on the BoyerMoore Prover A Mechanically Verified Incremental Garbage Collector. In 1991, I went to Computational Logic, Inc. (CLI) to work on faulttolerant hardware verification. This led to an analysis of the semantics of VHDL: A Formalization of a Subset of VHDL The application of interest was an asynchronous system of communicating processors: Verification of GateLevel VHDL Models of Synchronous and Asynchronous Circuits . When CLI folded in 1995, I went to Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD), where I worked primarily on floatingpoint design verification. Here are some papers on our registertransfer logic (RTL) verification methodology: Mechanical Verification of RTL: A Simple FloatingPoint Multiplier Verification of Pipeline Circuits Formal Verification of FloatingPoint RTL at AMD Using the ACL2 Theorem Prover One aspect of this methodology is the translation of RTL to ACL2, which led me to an investigation of the semantics of Verilog and, in particular, an analysis of IEEE Standard 13622001: A Note on the IEEE Verilog Simulation Cycle Here are some applications: Proof of IEEE Compliance of the AMDK5 Floating Point Square Root Microcode Proof of IEEE Compliance of the AMDK7 Floating Point Multiplication, Division, and Square Root RTL Mechanical Verification of RTL: The Athlon FloatingPoint Adder A Mechanically Verified Commercial SRT Divider Computation and Formal Verification of SRT Quotient and Square Root Digit Selection Tables Here is my rant on the accepted standard of correctness for floatingpoint designs: Remarks on the IEEE Standard for FloatingPoint Arithmetic An outgrowth of my work is an evolving ACL2 library of floatingpoint arithmetic, which has been made publicly available through the ACL2 Web site in the hope that it will be useful to others who are interested in floatingpoint verification. The following (long) paper is both an exposition of the underlying theory and a user's manual for the library: A Formal Theory of RegisterTransfer Logic and Computer Arithmetic At CAV 2007, I gave an invited talk describing my experience at AMD: A Mathematical Approach to RTL Verification I also worked at AMD on a formal model of the x86 instruction set architecture. Here is a note on Modeling the x87 Transcendental Instructions with Elementary Polynomial Approximations In 2012, I joined Intel, where I've continued my work on floatingpoint verification. John O'Leary and I have developed a formal functional programming language for the purpose of modeling arithmetic algorithms to be implemented in RTL: Modeling Algorithms in SystemC and ACL2 One application of MASC (in progress) is a formal proof of correctness of a hardware implementation of the DiffieHellman key exchange algorithm known as Curve25519. The first step in this project was a formalization of Pratt Certification and the Primality of 2^{255} – 19 The next step was A Computationally Surveyable Proof of the Curve25519 Group Axioms A byproduct of the latter was an analysis of Polynomial Terms and Sparse Horner Normal Form
My ErdősBacon number, as documented here, is 5.
